From cranksets to disc brakes, cycling can be a jargon-filled minefield for newcomers and the Tour de France is no different.
Cycling’s greatest race departs Brussels on Saturday 6 July, with every one of its 21 stages broadcast live. To help you follow the action, here’s our guide to commonly-used Tour terms and what they mean.
Common cycling phrases and what they mean
Every Tour de France stage has a time limit and the autobus forms on the mountainous days when non-climbers from every team work together to finish inside the cut-off. Also known as the grupetto.
The French word for a water bottle; many roadside fans will try to collect discarded bidons as souvenirs.
A small group of riders (or sometimes an individual), who accelerate away from the main bunch during a stage.
Flatter stages will usually finish with a bunch sprint – a high-octane, hell-for-leather battle for stage honours between the fastest sprinters in the peloton. Though the peloton arrives at the finish together in a bunch sprint, it is the sprinters and their lead-out men who contest the stage win.
Awarded each day to the most aggressive rider according to the race commissaires. The combativity award rewards the rider who animated the stage by initiating a breakaway, repeatedly attacking or spending a long time in front of the bunch. The winner can be easily spotted the next day, thanks to their red race numbers. An overall combativity award is also given at the end of the race.
A team’s race-day director; the master strategist; the person gesticulating wildly and conveying tactics out of the team car window.
The unsung heroes of the team, selected to look after their team leader. Domestiques keep their lead riders safe, fed and watered and will work to chase down breakaways or try and dictate the pace of the stage.
One job of the domestique is to make sure their team and team leaders stay hydrated Getty Images / Doug Pensinger / Staff
Lunchtime. Each stage has a dedicated feed zone, where the riders knock the pace off to collect musettes (small bags containing food and drinks) from their team soigneurs.
The one-kilometre-to-go marker, denoted by a red air bridge under which hangs a red kite.
Each rider’s finishing time is collected after the day’s stage. The general classification sorts the riders according to their cumulative time, plus or minus any bonuses or penalties. The rider who has taken the least time to complete the race so far wears the fabled yellow jersey.
The ‘Big Start’. This year’s Grand Départ sees the riders start in beautiful Brussels – the fifth time it has been hosted in Belgium.
Cycling’s three most prestigious stage races, each lasting three weeks; the Tour de France, Giro d’Italia and Vuelta a Espana are known as Grand Tours.
As well as the finish line, each stage features an intermediate sprint where there are points and prize money to be won for the first riders across it.
King of the Mountains
One of the Tour de France’s secondary prizes, the mountains classification ranks the first riders across each classified climb in the race. The tougher the climb, the more points there are available for that ascent. The leader of the mountains classification is the King of the Mountains and wears the polka-dot jersey.
Named after the red light hung on the back of a train, the lanterne rouge is the rider placed last on the general classification.
Maillot jaune/yellow jersey
The iconic yellow jersey, or maillot jaune, is worn by the general classification leader. Geraint Thomas won the yellow jersey last year.
Maillot vert/green jersey
The green jersey is the prize awarded to the points classification leader. Usually dubbed the sprinters’ classification, due to more points being available on flatter stages, Peter Sagan has won it a record-equalling six times.
Maillot a pois/polka-dot jersey
A distinctive white jersey with red polka-dots, awarded to the leader of the mountains classification.
Maillot blanc/white jersey
The white jersey is worn by the highest-placed young rider in the general classification. All riders born on or after January 1, 1994 are eligible for this year’s youth classification.
A soigneur waits to hand out musettes containing food and more bidons to the team riders Getty Images / Chris Graythen / Staff
A small cloth shoulder bag handed out in the feed zone, containing a rider’s food and extra bidons.
The ‘course’ or route the race is taking.
Watch the spelling – the peloton (not peleton) is the main bunch of riders during the race.
The top finishers in each stage and at each intermediate sprint are awarded points according to their position. Those points are added together to form the points classification, the leader of which wears the green jersey.
An all-rounder and often one of the hardest riders in the peloton; a rouleur can excel on all different terrains, and often makes for an excellent domestique.
The unsung hero of a team’s staff behind the scenes, the soigneur is responsible for looking after riders off the bike and handing out musettes, bidons and extra layers of clothing during the race.
Capable of stunning bursts of acceleration over short distances, the sprinters slug it out with their counterparts in the peloton on the flatter stages.
Sprinters, such as Peter Sagan, wait to to be led out across the line at the finish by their sprint train Chris Graythen/Getty Images
Sprint trains form ahead of a bunch sprint, with team-mates providing a wheel for their sprinter to follow through the chaos that unfolds. At the back of the train will be the lead-out man with the team’s sprinter on his wheel, ready to burst for the line at the latest possible moment.
The team classification ranks each team according to the cumulative time of their top three finishers on every stage. The team classification leaders may – but don’t always – wear yellow helmets to distinguish them in the peloton.
Team time trial
The second stage of the 2019 Tour de France is a 27.6km team time trial, which will see riders race against the clock in their individual teams. A team’s time is calculated at the fifth rider to cross the finish line.
As well as the team time trial, stage 13 of this year’s Tour de France will be an individual time trial. Riders set off individually, in reverse general classification order, on specialised bikes with the aim of finishing the stage in the quickest time. Often dubbed the ‘race of truth’, an individual time trial can result in big changes in the general classification.