Time trial bikes: everything you need to know about TT speed machines

Racing against the clock? Here’s everything you need to know about a time trial bike

Jakob Fuglsang's Factor Hanzo time trial bike

Time trials are the simplest form of bike racing – go from A to B as fast as you can, under your own steam.

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Unlike bunch racing, where the group dynamics of the peloton mean that tactics play almost as large a role as the rider’s athletic ability and you can save energy by drafting, time trials are about two things: power in and power out.

Power in is controlled by the rider (and, to some extent, their gene pool). In simple terms, it’s how hard you can turn the pedals. Power out is everything trying to slow you down – forces such as rolling resistance, friction, gravity and aerodynamic drag.

A cyclist looking to improve their performance in time trials has two options; put in more power or reduce resistance to those forces.

Due to the relatively high speeds involved (or the fact that you’re trying to ride at a high speed), aerodynamic drag is usually the dominant factor in time trials, with research showing that “aerodynamic resistance accounts for over 90 per cent of resistance a cyclist encounters on a flat surface”.

The problem only gets worse as you go faster too, because aerodynamic drag increases at the square of velocity. In order to double your speed, you need to produce four times the power.

It’s clear then that increasing ‘power in’ will quickly become unsustainable at higher speeds, even for the best athletes doing dedicated time trial training.

What is a time trial bike?

Time trial bikes are designed with one thing in mind: speed.
Simon von Bromley / Our Media

This is where time trial bikes come in. Unlike road bikes, which are designed to be versatile and perform well on a wide variety of courses and terrains, time trial bikes are designed with one major goal in mind: to be as fast as possible on straight, mainly flat, roads.

To achieve this, time trial bikes use specialist geometry and handlebars to coerce your body into a more aerodynamic position, plus aero-optimised tube profiles and components to cut through the wind.

Time trial handlebar extensions – sometimes referred to as ‘skis’ – allow the rider to adopt an aerodynamic position.
Simon von Bromley / Our Media

A time trial position compromises on handling and can be physically taxing to hold, but the positives typically outweigh the negatives.

After all, the rider alone accounts for the vast majority of aerodynamic drag (around 80 per cent, according to recent studies) in the rider plus bicycle system.

Time trial bikes are designed to be as aerodynamic as possible, to maximise straight-line speed.
Andrew Legge

What are the differences between time trial bikes and triathlon bikes?

Time trial and triathlon bikes share many similarities – primarily because the bike leg of a triathlon is often a solo time trial.

The main difference is that, since triathlons are not governed by the UCI, triathlon bikes designed for draft-illegal events (those in which drafting competitors is banned) are not constrained by the UCI rules.

This allows triathlon bikes, and their designers, to be much more adventurous with design choices. This typically means deeper tubes and even frame shapes, thanks to materials like carbon fibre, that don’t conform to the typical double-triangle design bicycles typically used since their invention.

Triathlon bikes can look very different to time trial bikes designed under the constraints of the UCI’s technical regulations.
Simon von Bromley / Our Media

With the importance of long-distance events, such as Ironman, in mind, many triathlon bikes even take storage for food, drink, tools and spares into account. While road cyclists tend to carry things in their jersey pockets or in trendy handlebar bags, triathletes are now able to carry their things in aerodynamically integrated storage compartments.

It’s all very civilised, and – if designed correctly – can even reduce the bike’s aerodynamic drag. Bikes such as Canyon’s 2021 Speedmax and Scott’s 2021 Plasma 6 are prime examples.

UCI rules currently prohibit the use of such deep tubes or fairings, but cyclists taking part in time trials governed by the CTT (Cycling Time Trials – a UK-based governing body for time trials not regulated by the UCI) can take advantage because its rules are much less prescriptive.

It’s all about aerodynamics…

Aero all the way.
Simon Bromley / Immediate Media


Time trial handlebars consist of a bullhorn handlebar (often referred to as a ‘base bar’) with a set of armrests and handlebar extensions situated on top, in the central area.

The extensions protrude forward, and, combined with the armrests, allow the rider to adopt and maintain a more aerodynamic body position than would otherwise be possible.

Time trial handlebars help put your body into a more aerodynamic position. You rest your forearms on the padded armrests and hold the end of the extensions with your hands.
Simon Bromley / Immediate Media

The armrests and extensions should be adjustable for both width and reach, to allow you to fine-tune your position. There are many pages of rules dedicated to restricting the range within which the extensions and armrests can be positioned in UCI sanctioned events, though.

If you’re ever taking part in such an event, the commissaires may even use a complicated jig to ensure your bicycle fits within the permitted dimensions. Outside of UCI governed events, this is unlikely to be a concern.

The gear shifters are typically located on the ends of the extensions, but the brake levers are placed on the bullhorns of the base bar. This means you don’t have access to both at the same time, as on a road bike.
Simon Bromley / Immediate Media

The downside of such handlebars is that the brake levers are typically located on the end of the bullhorns, so you don’t have such immediate access to them while using the extensions.

For this reason, time trial and triathlon bikes are generally not deemed suitable for bunch riding (outside of the team time trial, of course).

Tube shapes and geometry

Deep tube profiles help the bike cut through the wind.
Simon von Bromley / Our Media

Aero is practically everything when it comes to time trial bikes, with weight being of only minor importance. Because of this, tube shapes are optimised to be as slippery as possible, within the UCI rules.

While older time trial bikes used narrow aerofoil shapes, modern machines have gravitated towards wider, Kammtail shapes.

Narrow = fast.
Simon von Bromley / Our Media

These larger shapes are intended to trick the air into behaving like a much longer (and therefore more aerodynamic) aerofoil shape is present, and also provide benefits in terms of stiffness, weight and shielding water bottles from the airflow.

The geometry of time trial bikes also differs from that of road bikes. The most notable difference is that time trial bikes typically have steeper effective seat tube angles (around 75 to 78 degrees) compared to road bikes.

The seat tube angle on time trial and triathlon bikes tends to be steeper than on road bikes, and some even offer seatposts that have multiple clamping positions to help fine-tune saddle position.
Simon Bromley / Immediate Media

This puts the rider further forward of the bottom bracket, which can help prevent the rider’s hip angle from being too tight and impinging on athletic performance.

It does affect weight distribution, though, meaning more of the rider’s weight is placed on the front wheel of the bike. This can negatively affect handling, particularly on descents.


A solid rear disc and deep-section or low-spoked front wheel are generally considered the fastest combinations for time trials.
Simon von Bromley / Immediate Media

As with the frame, aero is everything when it comes to time trial wheels too.

The use of solid rear disc wheels and front wheels with ultra-deep rims or low spoke counts (such as tri-spoke wheels) are typical in time trials (front disc wheels are generally only permitted for use on the track).

There’s a balancing act to be had between using the deepest, most aerodynamic wheels you can get your hands on, and the negative effects such wheels can have on the bike’s handling on windy days.

Disc wheels are heavy but, ultimately, very fast.
Simon von Bromley / Our Media

It’s rarely too windy for a rear disc wheel. In fact, according to Xavier Disley of AeroCoach, using a rear disc wheel can “help to stabilise a bike’s handling in strong winds, as it moves the centre of pressure rearwards, away from the front wheel”.

However, at the front of the bike, choosing the most aggressive wheel you can find won’t be the fastest option if it means you can’t control the bike.


Until recently, bike manufacturers put a lot of effort into dreaming up aerodynamic solutions to hiding rim brakes within the fork or under the bottom bracket.

This usually meant compromised braking performance or complicated servicing (or both), but was considered to be acceptable in the pursuit of aero gains.

Standard rim brakes offer plenty of stopping power, but there are few aerodynamically optimised aftermarket options available.
Simon Bromley / Immediate Media

More recently, though, with the advent of disc brakes for road bikes, we’re seeing many new time trial bikes adopting disc brake technology.

Many have argued this is a step backwards in terms of aerodynamics, but removing the requirement for the rim to act as a braking surface, and for the frame to integrate two relatively large sets of rim brakes, opens up new design possibilities for wheel and frame manufacturers.

Disc brakes are now the norm on the latest time trial bikes.
Simon von Bromley / Our Media

It’s therefore too simplistic to say that rim brakes are always more aero than disc brakes – it depends on how the components come together as an overall system.

It’s also undoubtedly the case that better braking performance can, on technical courses, help you to ride faster too. This is because it enables you to brake later and with increased confidence, which – all else being equal – helps improve your average speed.


Big chainrings allow for a bigger gear but can also help optimise chainline.
Simon von Bromley / Our Media

Time trials often take place on flat or rolling courses, so riders chasing every advantage can optimise their gearing to suit.

This typically means large chainrings (53-tooth or larger) and closely spaced cassettes. The former is useful for optimising chainline, and the latter helps riders modulate cadence more precisely, which can be important when riding close to your physical limits.

Oversized chainrings don’t come as stock on many bikes, but they have their place on flat or rolling courses.
Simon Bromley / Immediate Media

Given power is lost to friction within the drivetrain, dedicated racers will also look to optimise their drivetrain efficiency as well.

This means larger chainrings, cassette cogs, jockey wheels, as well as fast chain lube, high-quality steel or ceramic bearings and even 1x drivetrains or short cranks.

These are undoubtedly marginal gains, but a number of small gains may add up to something more significant on race day.

1x setups, with a single chainring, are increasingly common on flat or rolling courses.
Simon von Bromley / Our Media


Although it doesn’t quite compare to aerodynamics, rolling resistance is still a key force working against the cyclist trying to ride faster. Optimising tyre setup to suit the course can therefore lead to significant gains.

The best road bike tyres and best tubeless tyres generally exhibit less rolling resistance than equivalent tubular tyres, and even the type of inner tube and quantity of tubeless sealant used will affect the amount of rolling resistance produced by the system.

Tubeless tyres are increasingly common on pro-level time trial bikes.
George Scott / Our Media

Time trial-specific tyres favour outright speed at the expense of all else. This typically means puncture protection is significantly reduced, and wear rates are increased.

You’ll need to choose your tyres carefully, based on the nature of your event. Short time trials on good roads may call for the fastest, most delicate tyres available; Vittoria’s Corsa Speed, Veloflex’s Record, Schwalbe’s Pro One TT or Specialized’s Turbo Cotton are fine examples.

TT tyres, like Vittoria’s Corsa Speed, can save you precious seconds on race day, but puncture protection is more limited than typical road tyres.
Simon Bromley / Immediate Media

Longer time trials, or those held on bad roads, may require something more durable because time lost having to stop to change a wheel or fix a puncture will likely outweigh what you’d gain with a faster, more delicate tyre.

Continental’s GP5000, Goodyear’s Eagle F1 or Schwalbe’s Pro One are great all-round options, combining decent speed with good puncture protection.

It will always be faster to ride the fastest tyres, until you puncture. The balance of risk and reward will be different for each race and each rider.

Tyre width can have an notable impact on aerodynamics.
Simon von Bromley / Our Media

Tyre aerodynamics are also an important consideration if you’re chasing the fastest all-out setup. For time trials, tyre width should be optimised to maximise the aerodynamic performance of the wheelset.

Many wheel manufacturers will have guidelines for the optimum tyre width for any given wheelset, but it usually just means picking a tyre slightly narrower than the external width of your rim.

For example, if your wheelset has a 28mm external rim width, then a 25mm tyre is likely to be the best option, aerodynamically.

To optimise aerodynamics, pick a tyre slightly narrower than the external width of your rims.
Simon Bromley / Immediate Media

Recent testing has even shown that tread patterns can have a small but measurable effect on aerodynamic performance.

Optimising tyre pressure is also important because pressures that are too high or low can increase rolling resistance significantly. It’s always worth checking the manufacturer’s recommendations and experimenting yourself.

Want to know more? We’ve got an in-depth guide to optimising road bike tyre pressure.

Fit and adjustability


Short saddles are common in TTs and allow for an aggressive riding position.
Simon von Bromley / Our Media

Given the aggressive nature of the time trial position, saddle choice is vital for maintaining comfort and preventing injury.

Look for something specifically designed to reduce soft tissue pressure when riding in an aerodynamic position because these will enable you to roll your hips forward and produce more power in the time trial position.

A saddle with relatively long rails will also allow for a greater range of positional adjustment, which may be useful if the seatpost on your bike is limited to a fixed position (this is typically more of an issue with older time trial bikes).

Time trial-specific saddles, such as this ISM Adamo Attack, can make a big difference to comfort when riding in the aero position.
Simon Bromley / Immediate Media

Saddle choice is personal to an extent and a good chamois cream can help, but you shouldn’t experience significant numbness or pain from riding time trials.

If you do, it’s worth seeking professional help, and a bike fit can help optimise both your saddle choice and position.

Handlebars part II

It’s common for pro riders to use custom, 3D-printed handlebars to achieve the perfect position.
Simon von Bromley / Our Media

When shopping for a time trial bike, front-end adjustability is absolutely critical.

If the handlebar cannot be adjusted sufficiently to enable your body to adopt a sustainable aerodynamic position, then it doesn’t matter how good it performs in a wind tunnel.

Look for a handlebar that allows the armrests and extensions to be easily raised or lowered, and to be adjusted both fore and aft, and side to side.

The ability to adjust the angle of the armrests and extensions is also useful. Many riders find, for example, that relatively high armrests combined with some upwards extension tilt is both more aerodynamic and comfortable than low armrests with flat extensions. A lower front end is not always faster.

If your time trial handlebar doesn’t have integrated angle adjustment capabilities, specialist companies like Aerocoach make after-market solutions.
Simon Bromley / Immediate Media

Finding your optimum position is a case of experimenting, as it will be unique for every rider.

You can do these experiments yourself using equipment such as power meters, speed sensors and/or aero sensors, or get professional help at a wind tunnel or track.

Time trial clothing, helmets and accessories

A fast setup extends to the kit a rider is wearing.
Tim de Waele / Getty images

It’s not only about the bike. Because your body is the biggest cause of drag, anything you can do to improve how the air flows over it can have an enormous impact.

Skinsuits, time trial helmets, aero socks and shoe covers can all be used to make yourself more slippery.

With helmets especially, it’s hard to know which is the fastest for you without testing because how it interacts with your position on the bike is crucial. The eyeball test can, sadly, only tell you so much.

Yes, all of this kit might look a bit silly (especially if you can get your hands on a POC Tempor), but if that’s what it takes to go fast, then so be it. Besides, you won’t look silly if you win, right?

Time trial helmets can vary significantly in design, but finding the fastest one for you can be tricky without professional help.
Immediate Media

Time trial history and the UCI rules

The most notable early use of time trial-specific handlebars occurred in the 1989 Tour de France, when Greg Lemond used Scott time trial extensions and overturned a 50-second deficit to Laurent Fignon to snatch the overall victory by eight seconds.

Previously, riders had simply used relatively standard road bikes with normal drop or bullhorn handlebars for time trials, perhaps only changing wheels, gearing or tyres to suit the task at hand.

Francesco Moser, in preparation for his successful hour record attempts in 1984, moved things on with regards to bicycles, wheels and clothing, but body position remained relatively unchanged.

Lemond’s victory ushered in a new era, kicking off an arms race that culminated in innovative athletes and brands like Graeme Obree, Lotus and Pinarello taking things to their logical extremes.

At this point, the UCI (Union Cycliste Internationale – the sport’s global governing body) stepped in and put a stop to all the fun, introducing a set of strict regulations (known as the Lugano Charter) around how road, time trial and track bikes could be designed and what positions riders could adopt on those bikes.

Bikes like the Lotus Sport 110 can no longer be used in UCI sanctioned competitions.
James Huang/Immediate Media

The banning of innovative equipment and techniques by the UCI is a grand (and much maligned) tradition within cycling that continues to this day.

Clever drag-reducing ideas such as the ‘praying mantis’ time trial position, vortex-generating dimples on skinsuits, long socks, aero leg gel and, most recently, the ‘supertuck’ position, have all seen use at the pointy end of the sport before being arbitrarily outlawed by the powers that be.

The objective of all of this is that the sport of cycling should remain an athletic rather than an engineering endeavour, an aim which – to briefly give credit to the UCI – isn’t entirely without its merit.

Faired recumbents are typically far more aerodynamic than conventional upright bicycles. Perhaps all true aero evangelists should be racing these?
Oli Woodman / Immediate Media

To give an idea of where things could have ended up without such a set of rules, the Human Powered Vehicle Hour Record currently stands at 92.432km (set using a MetaStretto faired recumbent bicycle).

That’s 37.343km further than the current UCI Hour Record (55.089km), set by Victor Campenaerts in 2019. The difference can be attributed almost entirely to aerodynamics, so clearly the UCI has to draw a line somewhere.

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Nevertheless, as with any set of rules, canny athletes will continue searching for loopholes and overlooked opportunities to exploit. And, given the aerodynamics of conventional upright bicycles are so sub-optimal (in terms of how the rider is positioned while using one), opportunities for improvement undoubtedly remain.